Evolutionary Psychology, very beautifully explains how men and women evolved to be the way they are. It is very interesting to study and understand why and how males and females have various similarities and still, the differences between the two, create what we often call the ‘battle of the sexes’. The similarities largely include similarities in habitat preferences (that is, for resource-rich environments containing places for refuge), similarities in kin investment as a function of genetic relatedness, and similarities in adaptations to avoid the “hostile forces of nature” such as predators, parasites, and other environmental hazards. It might seem like evolutionary psychology considers human beings only as creatures who work actively in order to survive and reproduce. It is almost like human life is decoded through evolutionary psychology with its core premise that explains the route of manifested behaviour depending on underlying psychological mechanisms, information processing that is housed in the brain, in conjunction with the external and internal inputs—social, cultural, ecological, physiological—that interact and thus, result in manifest behaviour. Moving on, differences between males and females are said to be found in the domains of mating and sexuality. Even though these differences are smaller in number, they are major determinants of the quality of the relationship that men and women share. Elaborating on these differences further, women have faced adaptive problems of pregnancy and breastfeeding, both of which are metabolically expensive endeavours. On the other end, men have faced adaptive problems of sexual jealousy, paternity uncertainty, and have taken risks of channelling their resources and parental investment to other’s progeny, the cause of which is, internal female fertilization. There has always been a subtle tiff between the sexes for a lot many reasons, whether it is the child-bearing woman or the sexually jealous man.
Oftentimes, there are conflicts in families wherein the mother feels like the father of the children is not investing much in the child. This investment may be in terms of the resources (eg. money, time) or in terms of parental effort. As an example, the Bollywood movie ‘Sultan’ subtly reflects the disinclination that fathers may have when it comes to raising children. In the movie, after they are married, Sultan Ali Khan (Salman Khan), an ex-wrestling champion impregnates Aarfa Hussain (Anushka Sharma), also a state level wrestler. The couple represented India on International wrestling platforms and were declared as finalists for the Olympic Games, around the same time Aarfa found out that she was pregnant. She willingly gave up her dream of winning an Olympic gold for her country due to her pregnancy. However, Sultan became extremely arrogant of his achievement and left for another international wrestling championship. Looking at the film from an evolutionary perspective, it shows how the father (Sultan) was more inclined towards accomplishing his goals than towards looking after his pregnant wife and caring for his unborn child. According to evolutionary psychology, females mate with a particular male and go on to bear their child. In the case of humans, the female bears the child in her womb for 9 months and once the child is born, the mother primary provider. Males, on the other hand, mate with women, fertilize the eggs, leading to conception. In cases of internal fertilization of eggs, as in humans, males can never be a cent percent certain of whether the offspring belongs to him (genetically and biologically) while women are obviously certain that the offspring belongs to her (genetically and biologically). This uncertainty among men leads to what is known as ‘Paternity Uncertainty’ due to which fathers reduce the amount of resource allocation and parental investment in children. The logic behind this paternity uncertainty is that males would rather invest and allocate their resources in acquiring additional mates instead of investing in an offspring that they might be uncertain of, in terms of being the offspring’s genetic father. This, in turn, leads us to the Mating Opportunity Hypothesis which proposed that men would rather invest in acquiring and attracting additional mates instead of bearing the opportunity cost of missing out on additional mates as a result of investing in offspring that they may not be certain of. Paternity uncertainty arises from the fact that men are `hard-wired' to seek as many sexual partners as they can, while women to seek men of superior genetic quality. This may make the men feel uncertain about investing in parental efforts and care in offspring as they do not have access to information about their partner’s sexual fidelity during their consortship. Misdirected investment of resources may lead to a wastage and prove costly to fathers who invest in their children instead of seeking additional mates. Traces of this belief are so subconsciously interwoven in our everyday conversations when males say ‘Leave my house with your child’ or when they blame the mother for the child’s misbehaviours ‘Your child’s behaviour is unacceptable’ or even when mothers say ‘What have you been teaching my child ?’ This is because mothers are ‘expected’ to do the lion’s share of child-rearing and parenting. Due to male sexual jealousy, males are usually highly concerned with women’s virginity. This sexual jealousy keeps men from committing to one long-term relationship as it may hamper their future chances of mating with other women. Drawing instances from Bollywood songs, ‘hum dil de chuke sanam, tere ho gaye hai hum, teri kassam’ (Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam) ; ‘Kassam ki kassam hai kassam se, humko pyaar hai sirf tumse’ (Main Prem Ki Deewani Hoon), are just two among many examples of ways through which the female tries to reassure the males that she belongs to him, exclusively (in movies). In order to prevent men from taking away their resources and ensuring that they still provide and invest in the offspring, the mother tries to prove it to the father that she has been faithful to him and that the child belongs to him. Not only the mother but even her kin try to reassure the male’s resources and the male himself that, the child belongs to him, genetically. They point out the child’s resemblance to the father time and again so as to make him feel more like the child belongs to him. For this very reason, pregnant women often keep pictures of their husbands around them and keep looking at them so that, the offspring resembles the father. Relatives also point out their resemblance by saying, ‘bilkul Papa pe gaya hai’ and such phrases.
If there are so many differences as to why men and women come in conflict with one another, why do they even come together or get involved in relationships with another?
The answer is Attraction.
A lot of women’s magazines write articles about how women can attract men towards them. Most of these lists have things like, ‘Make Eye Contact’; ‘Smile more’; ‘Smell good’; ‘Remain Physically Fit’; ‘Wear red’ among various others. We often wonder why a certain couple is together even though there is a stark difference in their external appearances and one of them appears to be more attractive than the other. A lot of Bollywood movies are made with the primary theme being romance. What creates this romance is the attraction between males and females. These movies often have a variety of songs that describe the beauty of physical features that women possess. For example, ‘Yeh chaand sa roshan chehara, zulfon ka rang sunehara, yeh jheel se neeli aankhein’ (Kashmir ki Kali); ‘Gulaabi aankhein jo teri dekhi, deewana yeh dil, ho gaya’ (The Train) ; ‘Aankhon mein teri ajab si ajab si adaayein hai’ (Om Shanti Om) ; ‘Hassti rahe tu hassti rahe, haya ki laali khilti rahe’ (Saathiya); ‘Tere naina bade kaatil maar hi daalenge’ (Dabangg); ‘Chittiyan Kalaiyyan’ (Roy). These are just a few examples. However, when the inner psychologist takes over, we notice that a lot of songs (most of them) are dedicated to women’s beauty and often talk about their physical features as being the basis of attraction. On the other hand, while thinking of songs that describe men, most of the Bollywood songs use the ‘heroic’ image to attract the female to the male protagonist. For example songs like,‘Main hoon hero tera’ (Hero); ‘Tera dhyaan kidhar hai yeh tera hero idhar hai’ (Main Tera Hero); ‘Oh mere Raja khafa na hona’ (Johny Mera Naam); the ‘Desi Boyz’ title track does everything to show that the man is very famous among women; ‘Ramji ki chaal dekho, aankhon ki majaal dekho, kare yeh kamala dekho’ (Ram Leela). The differences between the two categories of the songs are very obvious once we look at it from a psychological perspective. Besides all these songs, a lot of questions haunt us as we delve deeper into the Male-Female Attraction topic. Why do men get more attracted to curvy women ? Why has the saying, ‘Opposites Attract’ gained so much momentum? Why are there so many jokes about women being attracted to men who drive expensive cars and life in fancy houses?
The answers to all these questions lie within Evolutionary Psychology. According to Evolutionary theory, smiling; eye contact; smelling good; remaining physically fit and wearing red are all the ways in which females can attract more men. Considering these separately, evolutionary psychologists explain that smiling more often, makes men feel like the woman is interested in him (even if she is not!) and stimulates the sensory rewards circuit part of his brain, making the woman seem more approachable. Not only this but, whiter and straighter teeth are more alluring as they indicate healthy genetics, which human beings or even other species instinctively aim to pass along. Making eye contact with men is seen as a signal which tells them that the woman is interested in him. Eyes are often described as being windows to the soul and are the basis on which they decide whether the woman is trustworthy. We all try really hard to mask our natural bodily scent. Evolutionary Psychologists, on the contrary, explain that this bodily scent is what plays an important role in attracting a mate. Our bodies send certain signals to the bodies of those of the opposite sex regarding our availability and effectiveness as a potential mate. These messages are often loud and clear but get passed on very subtly. These subliminal messages may be: “I’m really really fertile right now”; “I’m not the father types, I will not take care of your kid”. Moving on, the most emphasised aspect of female attractiveness is, appearing to be physically fit and having a curvy figure. This hourglass figure is the loudest siren which attracts men to women as it tells men that the woman is fit to bear his child and is fertile. Having large breasts is indicative of good genetic diversity, a backup for fat storage and increased ability to procreate. The waist-to-hip ratio is another effective indicator of women’s fertility as it is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility. The phrase ‘child-bearing hips’ didn’t just get so famous! Another cue to the fertility of women is given out when men see women in red. It makes men perceive women as being more attractive but also symbolizes blood which, in turn, represents youth and a higher fertility rate.
Women, on the other hand, are believed and often found to be highly attracted to a man who is rich and resourceful. The evolutionary reason behind this is that women often choose mates who will be able to provide more resources for them and their offspring. Men who seem to be more promising in these terms, stand better chances at being chosen by women as their mates. These are the roots of from where the notion of ‘Men are the breadwinners and women are the homemakers’ germinates. An example of a song from the movie Zanjeer wherein the song ‘Pinky hai paise walo ki’, when looked at from the evolutionary perspective highlights this resource needing nature of women.
This attraction between the sexes leads to the creation of the institution of marriage. Marriage, from the evolutionary perspective, is an evolved psychological mechanism which helps in overcoming the adaptive problem of commitment that leads to a conflict between men and women. It is seen as a way to assure the woman that the man commits to providing her and her offspring with resources and protection thus, in turn increasing their chances of survival. On the other hand, it is also a way of assuring the man that, his woman, since she is sure of his resources, will bear his child, reproducing a copy of his genes and does not cuckold him. It is nature’s way of balancing out the conflict that has been an issue ever since. If marriage is the solution to the conflict, why do so many couples choose divorce? Divorce, again, is another evolved psychological mechanism which has emerged in order to solve the adaptive problem of the man being cuckolded, preventing the misdirection of his resources and investment. For the woman, it is a way for her to fend resources for herself and her offspring in case her husband’s resources are not sufficient for their survival and protection. It also allows the woman to find better genes and a man who will be able to provide for her offspring. However, even in the marital context, both genders face the problem of identifying mates who will commit to them over the extended temporal durations
Is there a better solution to judging whether the long-term relationship will work and whether it is worth investing in a romantic/ sexual partner or identifying the right mate?
Live-in relationships are the newest evolved psychological mechanism. Live-in relationships act as trial rounds wherein the partners live together and get at least an idea of how the other person is. This is a generic reason as to why live-ins are becoming so popular. However, evolutionary psychology explains that live-in relationships are a way to test the waters before taking the plunge. It is a way to understand an individual’s behaviour under different circumstances, eating preferences and to an extent, even whether the couple is sexually compatible. As an example, in the movie ‘Befikre’, Ranveer Singh and Vani Kapoor enter into a live-in relationship and got a fair idea of how different their lives were with one doing a full night shift and the other having an early morning call time. In terms of evolutionary psychology, the female understands the male’s resource spending patterns (eg. money, time), eating habits, behaviours and other habits. Males can also benefit by getting to know the female better in terms of her nature and whether she nurturing enough to rear his children.
Live-in relationships are not openly accepted in the Indian society but, if looked at, from the evolutionary perspective, does show at least some benefits before a couple engages in marital investment. The reason for this concept being a taboo in the Indian society is that, the Indian culture values (over-values) the woman’s chastity and expects her to abstain from sexual intercourse or even sexual behaviours before marriage. The whole idea is to preserve her virginity for her husband. Men, on the other hand, are not expected to preserve their ‘virginities’ or anything of that sort. Clearly, this discrimination and bias against women were unfair and evolutionary psychology had to develop an evolved psychological mechanism to fight against this adaptive problem.
This time, the answer is Feminism. It is a wave of feminism that has hit the floor, of late. Why did this whole ‘Feminism’ wave arise? The answer once again lies with evolutionary psychologists. They explain that this wave of feminism is nature’s way of balancing the inequalities that exist between men and women. With women gaining more independence and men stepping in to become homemakers, feminism is a masked transformation in the rigid sex roles and stereotypes attached to both the sexes. Be it breaking the glass ceiling, switching roles of breadwinner and caretaker or expressing yourself openly, feminism covers all aspects where women and men are burdened with socially acceptable sex roles and duties that they must fulfil. An instance from the movie ‘Ki & Ka’ wherein Arjun Kapoor takes on the role of a home-maker and Kareena Kapoor takes on the role of a successful businesswoman, it was a very beautiful way of addressing the gender stereotypes. Most of the feminists applauded the movie but, unfortunately, it was not very well received by the audiences as a whole. The reason behind this was that the audience expected it to aligned with the Indian cultural ‘guidelines’ and found the movie to be very ‘silly’, almost depicting an impossible phenomenon. Feminism exists to change these mindsets and thus, to create a balance between the sexes so as to avoid the very clichéd ‘Battle of the Sexes’!
Evolutionary Psychology sure has its ways of evolving itself and solving adaptive problems!
“I come from Kherapada. My parents are always home but, my brother and sisters go to work. My brother dropped out after his first year in college and both my sisters have passed their tenth. They go to Umargaon for work, which is roughly an hour’s travel from train. I walk everyday for about a half hour’s time to get to school. My parents occasionally scold me for not studying. I like dancing a lot, especially with my friends. We are not taught at school but we dance at home. My sister teaches me. When I grow up, I dream to sing. My parents probably won’t support. They just hope that I pass and if I do, they will let me sing. I study as much as I can to pursue that dream.”
We sulk when we have to sit in a room, which does not have air conditioning; we crib because fans are not enough. We are unsatisfied when our parents give us a piece of their mind for going off the grid, moreover out of concern. We whine when we are denied an outing. However, the day we visited this school, we woke up on the right side of reality. Where the world seemed like a much larger place, a place where everyone is fighting a battle we know nothing of. Children growing up with the mindset that education only means going to school. A place where you’re conditioned to think that the only career to keep you happy is that of being a doctor, engineer or teacher. Children who are abused and yet, silently let their sorrows drown within the walls of a classroom among the chatter. They walk with torn or no footwear on a rugged ground with the hope of a better day. Sometimes, they keep going on and let their lives be dictated with the words of the apparent “older, wiser, and better people”. Their idea of a life becomes the lives they’ve seen before theirs: slogging mindlessly with little returns. As they grow older, the sparkle in their eyes dwindles. It almost comes down to nothing. Innocence is lost, but at what cost? We cannot possibly make every miserable person’s life better, it is a utopian dream. However, empathizing with them is the first step in that direction. Let them fight their own battles, set themselves free from conventional shackles.
Leo Shaili Shah
Leo Club Of Juhu.
In this article, I will talk about the globally rising xenophobia. The term xenophobia refers to dislike, fear of unknown or fearing something that is different from you. Unfortunately, in the last couple of years xenophobic rhetoric and hate crimes are on the rise in all over the world.
The first question should be asked is; “Why is it globally rising?” To answer this question, we must take a closer look at the reasons of xenophobia. One of the first and in my opinion, one of the most important reason is the refugee and migrant crisis. Due to terrorist attacks happening all over the world, European countries and USA have taken strict precautions. Counter terrorism legislations has been tightened. In some countries several anti-immigrant marches held. Far right and right wing have gained ground.
“The main driving force behind xenophobia is fear of certain groups of people that are different from the group perceived as “us”. This fear mainly relates to economic, cultural, and security threats that could be abstract or realistic in their nature.”
Politicians have exploited these fears for their political goals. Furthermore, media has a non-negligible impact on increasing xenophobia. J. Olaf Kleist has mentioned in an article that media researcher Friederike Herrmann argues that the media began creating the impression that the refugee issue was overwhelming the state, thereby inciting fear. In my opinion media should make objective publications on such critical society-related issues.
In conclusion, we have to think with a collective mind on solutions for increasing xenophobia. We must try to reduce xenophobia by starting with awareness raising classes especially for children in the age of education. Education is the only way to get rid of this ugly stereotypes,
racism and xenophobia.
As a United Nations independent expert mentioned, high quality education has a significant impact on preventing all the forms of discrimination. Addition to this, religion and caste-based politics needs to be ended in order to reduce inciting fear and hate that I mentioned before.
Leo Meriç Yamanlar,
Agora Leo Club Turkey.
Essentially, each and every human is in search of social appreciation, which is probably the most boosting factor in our process of self-discovery. The way we eat, act or dress is part of our identity, which is mainly shaped by the tradition, culture and the role models that we aim to live up to. In addition, we are on a permanent journey of comparing ourselves to our environment – in order to convince others and not less, to convince ourselves.
In this familiar manner we sometimes forget to question our behaviour; we take certain practices for granted just because it has always been done that way. We accept the habits of our parents or friends, and often maintain this for a long time without reflecting on it.
But in fact, there is no reason to be scared of personal decisions. It seems to just be in human nature that new ways of thinking take time before they are accepted by society.
The catchword is: Authenticity.
Every action should be squared with individual values.
Starting on a small scale, we could first give thought to just one negative habit that we'd like to replace with a good one.
Recently a friend recounted her experience:
She decided to replace her often touchy and discontented behaviour towards her husband by doing her best to be nice, and sometimes giving compliments.
For example, she had often criticised him for not washing up and decided to thank him for clearing the table instead.
The challenge was to not make him notice that she was doing anything different. Not an easy undertaking at first – but the result was amazing:
After one day her husband unconsciously started to give her compliments as well. A few days later, he washed the dishes without being asked and finally even told her how happy he was about their current married life.
Inspired by this – how about trying to change one personal mannerism? Be it a certain negative behaviour or habit, here’s a list of tips for you. Let's dive right in:
TIP 1: Identify the wrongdoing Step one is taking stock of oneself: What aspect of your personal conduct causes problems or leads to dissatisfaction?
TIP 2: Make sure you really want to break the habit A clear decision is the basis for any transformation. Make a plan and set goals. Start small.
TIP 3: Tell a friend This step is totally optional. Involving others might encourage you.
TIP 4: Find a substitute Avoid temptation. Replace the negative habit with something good.
TIP 5: Stay strong What's your goal? What are the benefits of reaching it? Keep in mind that the effort is worth it.
Leo Club of Neckar-Franken,
As the 8th of March does closer I would like to dedicate my article for this month to the women all around the world.
First let’s remember what International Women’s day is about. This day is a global day celebrating social, economical, cultural and political achievements of women.On March 8, 1857, 40000 weaving workers in New York, USA seeking better working conditions started a strike. But as a result of workers being attacked by the police then being locked down in factory which caught on a fire. And that followed by 129 workers being not able to escape and burned to death in there. And from that day as for their memory , 8th of March now celebrating all around the world as International Women’s Day.
As a woman who lives in todays society I would like to talk about what it’s like to being a woman in today’s world. Discrimination against women starts at birth for a girl and continues for the rest of her life in many aspects. From the first steps until the last, we always feel less important, not smart or not strong enough to survive.
Women all around the world faces all kinds of social, economical and cultural injustices. But I wish this was the only problem. Every year nearly 150 million women experiences sexual or physical assault in some kind of way. Nearly 30% of women’s first sexual experience was forced. Over 60 million girls worldwide are child brides. Worldwide, up to 50 percent of sexual assaults are committed against girls under 16. Every day we see images of male violence against women in the news, on TV shows, in the movies, in advertising, and in our homes and workplaces. It is a fact of life for women of all ages, races, and classes. The world we are living in do not value women because of the thoughts we were raised in.
In the broadest sense, viciousness against women is whatever violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical health. Violence against women ranges from sterilisation abuse to prescription- drug abuse, pornography, stalking, battering, and even rape. Every form of violence threatens all women and limits our ability to make choices about our lives.
50 years ago, most forms of violence against women were hidden with silence or acceptance. As more and more women talked with each other it became clear that violence against us happens on a enormous scale; that no woman is okay with it; and that family, friends, and public institutions have been cruelly insensitive about it.We must realise our strength and help the ones who lives through this experience. Being a women is really hard, I know, but we are the ones to change that!
Leo Simru Goven,
Agora Leo Club,
Read more about the program
Home to the second largest population and one of the fastest developing economies, why is the phrase “Indian democracy” oxymoronic? Even though it has been over 70 years since our emancipation from the British rule, why are we still oppressed?
Despite our many scientific advancements, creatively, we still face a backward system. We are still stifled by our own notions which inadvertently have disallowed our own growth. The fields of media, more particularly, are fraught due to the restrictions imputed onto their creativity by the very industry they represent. Boasting democracy cannot be juxtaposed with thwarting freedom of expression. We have one of the largest youth populations and the potential we hold, to dominate all fields, is colossal. Of course, our cultures must be respected- and they are- as we are proud our diversity; but we must not lose our ability to detach from our cultural and religious faiths when dealing with opinions, thoughts and ideas. The examples of these two distinct, different streams intersecting, overlapping and conflicting, are unending, but to aid understanding, I would like to delve into a few.
Let’s begin with perhaps the most famous; the scandal surrounding Anurag Kashyap’s “Udta Punjab”. The movie strove to display the prevalent drug issue in Punjab but was somehow misconstrued as an endorser of drug abuse and merited 94 cuts by the Central Board of Film Certification. Reading their name, one can tell that their role is merely certifying films based on their content to ensure that the more mature films are prescribed only to the mature audiences. However, they repeatedly have crossed the boundaries of their duties and modified and even rejected films: Indian films that won awards around the world like “Margarita with A Straw”, “The Pink Mirror” and internationally renowned films like “The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo” and even “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom”. The documentary “India’s Daughter” about the brutal, rape and murder of Jyoti Singh in 2012 was also banned. Sexual harassment and assault already being an extremely prevalent issue in the country, education cannot be denied through such mediums. Until people do not understand the horrors committed and the very real, very painful consequences of the same, change will not commence because it must be evoked since it is not being regulated. The story of a victim of one of the country’s largest issues, was banned by the country- and that should be unacceptable.
Deviating from this long list, another series of unfortunate, unnecessary events arise. Salman Rushdie’s 1988 novel “Satanic Verses” invited controversy and fallouts from all over the world but India not only banned the book, but even the author until 2015. Despite the book’s connotations, the choice people deserve of reading/not reading or liking/not liking the book was stolen away based on the opinions of the people in power. The book is still banned in India.
In the 2st century.
In a democracy.
If that wasn’t redundant enough, one of India’s finest painters MF Husain, renowned around the world for his work, was forced into exile because the sentiments of religious groups were hurt to the extent that they took to vandalizing his home and art. A man that put India in the global art conversation was forced to flee his country out of fear for his own safety.
"No matter what anybody tells you, words and ideas can change the world."
Our immense population holds a countless number of words and ideas. They deserve to not only be told without being modified or stripped of their meaning, but heard, without preordained biases, threats and hatred. It is only our reaction to these events that will have any effect. We can witness our country’s ascent to brilliance in all fields, or be bystanders as we trample over that very potential.
“And medicine, law, business, engineering, these are noble pursuits and necessary to sustain life. But poetry, beauty, romance, love, these are what we stay alive for.”
Leo Aakash Nair,
Alpha Leo Club of SVKM International.
Read more about the program
Protein-Shakes, Detox-Teas and healthy lifestyle – this has been a very popular issue since a few years. Not only young people but also the elderly and lots of businessmen and women are following this trend. Many books have been published about different diets and the fitness blogger scene is booming as well but what’s important about nutrition and the role that weight training plays in our daily lives will be discussed in the following article.
Let’s start with nutrition, which is the base of a healthy lifestyle. There are different diets and ways to eat. E.g. low carb diet. At the moment a diet called intermittent fasting is booming. It means you fast during the most hours of the day for example 16 hours. During the left eight hours you are allowed to eat. That’s an option. But you can choose your own time periods of fasting and eating. Famous actors like Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson and Hugh Jackman got in shape with this method. Of course the diet isn’t successful if you eat crisps, candy or something similar. Protein, water, fruits and vegetables are priority number one – in every diet.
Protein is important for the muscles. The muscles will stay just if the body is fed with different sources of protein. Except for the obvious source meat, you find it in a lot of vegan or vegetarian options like tofu. Water is good for your metabolism; in actuality at least two liters of water per day are the minimum. For a healthy lifestyle water is good for detox.
Vegetables and fruits are filled with vitamins. They have sugar too but keep in mind that sugar in fruits is healthier than that in the other examples such as candy or jam. One of the most important things to bear in mind is the topic about detox. Tons of “detox teas” are on sale now. They are really expensive. Drink four cups of usual green tea per day and the result will be the same. You won’t lose weight just by drinking the tea. Focus on your nutrition and regular training should be done too.
On Instagram, Youtube and Facebook there is a plethora of fitness bloggers. They are showing different healthy lifestyles. So we have to decide which one is the best for us, which involves a special diet and what kind of sport we prefer e.g. weight lifting in the gym or exercising with our own body weight. The fitness bloggers are not showing us the exact right way, but they advice us when we are not sure how to manage all these things.
In summary three important things we learned: nutrition, sport and strict discipline. They are working together. About the internal content we can discuss as per our preference but focus on your strength and try not to look up to fitness bloggers or models who are trained like an Adonis. Because what our hobby is, it is their job. They get paid for showing different shakes, teas or clothing brands. Keep that in mind while thinking about that topic!
And now, let’s go to the gym!
Leo Rebecca Stutz,
Leo Club of Neckar-Franken,
During this week I was watching the news about a TV presenter, who because of stress suffered facial paralysis, and is not a person of 50 or 60 years, we are talking about a young man of 30 years. Therefore, this topic seems crucial to me to highlight.
At present we live in a world with many social changes, which generate situations that affect our day to day in family life, work, social and political, thus achieving that we generate stress.
Stress seems to be harmless, but What is stress? What would be its correct definition? In carrying out my research, I came across several definitions, which is why we will use the definition of the World Health Organisation (WHO) that defines stress in the following way:
The set of physiological reactions that prepare the body for action."
That is, stress would be an alarm, a stimulus that leads to action, a response necessary for survival, a response that may be consistent with the demands of the environment, or insufficient or exaggerated.
In fact, the diseases that can be acquired due to stress are many, for example:
• It affects the nervous system
• Sleep disorders
• Hair loss and weakness in the nails
• It affects the heart rhythm
• It affects our psychological state, which can generate depression, despair, among others.
• It affects our diet
• It affects our social environment, among others.
It is considered one of the causes of death in the most common young people in this century. Moreover, World Health Organisation (WHO) considers the global pandemic of the future, noting that many more people will suffer and that not only generates an emotional cost but also an economic cost along with other diseases such as cancer, diabetes, among others.
The young people of today suffer from many diseases that in our grandparents and great-grandparents; time did not appear in the youth but in the elderly people these diseases.
Stress is currently in our environment, but it is greater in our workplace, where the work environment is usually toxic and generates stress having to cope in such a place, affecting our health and our social and family environment over time, that stress we keep until we get to our homes or meet with friends and can marry unnecessary conflicts.
Many people have died in their jobs because of this, most of them under 30; while others have died from some of the diseases that cause stress such as depression or despair or anxiety that the above can lead to suicide.
Many will tell me that it is impossible not to stress, if it is true, but we ourselves must stop and analyze the situation, because those affected are ourselves. It does not help to be a person who does everything excellent at work if you have a heart attack, at work they will remember the event only and they will replace you, while your family will suffer forever for the loss of the person.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has been working with countries to make important changes in the work environment, which is the place where one is most affected by stress, in which they demand an adequate work environment, job security, insurance doctor, and better deals, but much remains to be achieved.
Some recommendations that can be made to reduce stress levels are the following:
• Organise your schedule of what you will do in your workday, so you will have a better control of your activities.
• Exercise is a good way to reduce stress levels, take 5 to 10 minutes in the morning or afternoon to perform them.
• Organise your weekend outings with your family and friends.
• Work problems do not take them home.
• Take about 5 minutes during the workday to close your eyes and take a deep breath, that will help to lower your stress a little.
• Never skip your lunch hour, it's your time to share, relax, or have a moment with yourself.
• Listen to the type of music that relaxes you, in many jobs they allow people to listen to music, that helps.
• Get out of the routine from time to time, take field trips on weekends, go out with friends, take relaxing massages, watch a movie, among others.
These are some of the recommendations that can be offered to reduce stress levels, but take into account that each one must also do his part, because the moment he continues to think that he generates stress, nothing will make the recommendations; that is, disconnect for a time from them. Never forget, that all problems and situations have some solutions, all except death.
Leo Kimberly Saldaña
Leo Club of San Francisco Panama
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What is culture?
“Culture is the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterise a society or a social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.”
-World Conference on Cultural Policies
In general, we identify culture as enduring behaviours, thoughts and values shared by a group of people which passed down the generations and subjected to change and evolving. Let’s see how the cultural variables touch a person’s behaviour. According to the psychological studies we can identify main three areas affected by the culture such as Social behaviour, Personality and Cognition.
The question is whether there is a difference in the social behaviour according to the gender and if so does culture play a role in it?
Studies show a gender difference in social behaviour; as an example, females are more supportive in listening and males in helping an old lady to carry a bag; but they do not seem to be always culturally influenced. Cultures assign traditional gender roles and then there will be an influence on social behaviour depending on the culture and the gender. There are universal/global gender related and accepted social behavioural patterns. The extent of the applicability of these behaviours may change depending on culture, for example women having less personal autonomy, Men’s work versus women’s work at home and work place.
Personality is a relatively unique way of thinking and behaviour of a person which is usually consistent throughout life. There are many personality traits (relatively stable characteristics) identified in psychology. Studying different personality traits and their existence in groups, will lead to a link between how culture emerges with different personalities. Measures of personality traits and behaviour will show a lower relationship in Asian cultures.
Does culture shape the emotional expressions of people?
Studies are done on basic emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness and surprise. Studies attempt to seek how verbal as well as non-verbal emotional expressions differ across cultures. There are notable similarities of emotions such as eye contact-attraction, body reactions for sadness/happiness across cultures. Some emotions seem to be more determined from culture than biology. Interpretation of the emotions too may be culturally influenced (through the cultural glasses of the observer). Studies show that many basic emotions are shared across cultures and they probably may be serving and evolutionary roots shared by all humans. Positive emotions are more recognised by persons within a culture.
Can we have a uniform measure of intelligence so that we can compare the cultural influence on the intelligence cross culturally?
The outcome of intelligence measures will depend on the experience, stimulations and the schooling the person is exposed to. The level of intelligence and special abilities seem to influence culture at times and vice versa.
When we consider about cognition of a person, culture clearly touch the thinking styles of a person. Main difference in the thinking styles of East Asians and the Westerners is that western persons are more analytical, logical whereas the Asians are more holistic. Different thinking styles will influence reasoning and behaviour. Studies have shown that these different thinking styles work well in their own cultural setups.
Language has always been influencing the thinking patterns and passing over the thinking styles among the others. So, it contributes to the construction of a culture as well as evolution of culture. Learning a language is influenced by social interactions and then inevitably the languages will have unique cultural features embedded in it. Studies show that people will have better memory for culturally closer things. Approaches to teaching and learning has large amount of cultural differences. These cultural differences are seen in locus of control, self-concept and attribution styles in achievements and failures. The content taught and learnt at different ages will also be different cross culturally. When it comes to sensation and perception, different cultures perceive the same phenomenon differently.
Without adequate knowledge and understanding of different cultures’ styles of interactions and responses, a person might misinterpret another person’s behaviour. It is incredible how the culture has such a big influence on human behaviour among them and attitude towards life in general.
Leo Iroshima Ponnamperuma
Leo Club of Colombo Host.
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In the recent times social media had become a significant part of our lives. Most of the people are using social media and this usage is increasing day by day. Some people use it for entertainment ,some people use it for interact with others.
Social media is defined as a platform that helps user to interact with other users. Such as, updating a profile, Instagram posts about their holidays, tweets about their feelings ,snapchat stories, chatting and etc. What if like everything else, more social media usage had become an addiction or an obsession? According to some researches, people spend an average of 2-3 hours a day on social media. The problem comes when you overspend your time on those social media platforms. If you find yourself missing on social media platforms while looking for something different or if you constantly check what people share in social media, then you are showing signs of social media addiction.
Some people feel anxiety when they are in a place with no internet access. If you just want to spend your time on social media rather then your daily activities and responsibilities, you should know that something is wrong. The more time you spend on social media, the more socially isolated you will be.
The problem is that without control, social media can control your life rather than you control it. The important thing is to consciously use social media. It is up to you to how social media affects you life. What you can do is replace your usual free time that you overused for social media for other things. You can make yourself busy so that you will have no free time to check on social media.
In conclusion, social media is a great way to connect with people. Do not forget, this technology is here to help us move forward, it is not created to waste our time. What you have to do is gain back the control over your life and use social media without deviating from its purpose.
Leo Aybuke Ceylan
Social Media Team Leader,
Agora Leo Club, Turkey
“According to WHO, 80% of visual impairment including BLINDNESS IS AVOIDABLE.”
Recently, our club had organised a cricket tournament for the blind and partially blind people. It was unbelievable to see the level of their enthusiasm and zeal while playing. After interacting with them I realised that they were people just like me and you, but due to their financial conditions were not able to get proper and timely eye care or they chose to neglect it as many people do and later ended up with serious damage to their vision.
Globally, 285 million people are visually impaired of which 39 million people are blind. According to WHO, 80% of visual impairment including blindness can be prevented or cured if taken appropriate eye treatment. Un-operated cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in low and middle-income countries.81% people who are blind or have moderate to severe vision impairment are aged 50 years and above. With an increasing population of older people, more people will be at risk of vision impairment due to chronic eye diseases.
So, how can we as an individual make a difference?
Sources: Lions International & WHO
Leo Akshay Shah
Social Media Director,
Leo Club of Juhu.
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“I see humans but no humanity“
People talk about what has happened in their favorite sports .People talk about Prince William’s new haircut. People talk about which name Kim Kardashian West gave her daughter. But the issue people do not talk about which has been going in Myanmar since August 2017. A situation which many of us would describe as the probably fastest progressing emergency situation of refugees in the world. In Myanmar Muslim Rohingyas have been hunted and discriminated against over decades. Although they have lived there this whole time, the government amongst others refuses to give them citizenships. The conflicts between the majority of Buddhists and the minority of Muslims escalated at the end of August, when Rohingya rebels attacked soldiers and police. They also killed lots of security forces. The army responded to this with violence, hundreds of people were killed and their houses were set on fire.
This has happened in the federal state of Rakhine from wehre more than 640.000 Rohingyas have fled to Bangladesh since August 2017 because the army burnt down their houses, killed their family members in front of their eyes, raped girls and women and destroyed everything that they have built in their lives. The UN classified this course of action done by the army as ethnic cleansing.
People risk their lives and cross dangerous roads with the hope for safety and shelter. As soon as they reach Bangladesh they face new problems like a lack of sanitary facilities, no access to water or food and nearly no help from human rights organizations because these organizations are held back by laws and limitations. Also, some people, who live near the area where Rohingya go to in Bangladesh try to take advantage of their situation by taking lots of money from the Rohingyas to transport them into camps or safe areas.
Human rights organizations criticize the country and government of Aung San Suu Kyi, the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. She is seen as a hero and global icon for non-violent battles, democracy and liberty.
Due to this huge ongoing problem we have to think about on what kind of earth we would really like to live. A place of equality, appreciation and peace is much better than knowing that on the other side of our world people have to flee because of their faith or their affiliation to a certain section of the population. So what we can do is not just to listen to the news and then go back to normal. We should try to change something even though it might seem like a problem we cannot influence. Human rights organizations try their best to support the Rohingya but laws and limitations prevent these organizations to help in the way people in refugee camps and elsewhere need so badly.
In conclusion we can say that the Rohingyas and what they have to experience right now is a symbol for the way minorities and people with other opinions, religions and other lifestyles are still treated in our world, and how humanity is still missing in our developed world.
LEO-Club of Neckar-Franken,
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In the last few weeks the news of harassment in the show business has been released and they have created movements like #TimesUp and #MeToo, which aims to raise voice against the sexual harassment and at the same time the people who have suffered it can feel identified and realise that they are not alone.
But what is the meaning of sexual harassment? If we can investigate, we can find several definitions according to the situation, but the general definition is as follows:
It is intimidation or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwanted or inappropriate promise of rewards to change of sexual favours."
At times somebody has whistled you, they have given you sexual compliments, where they have followed you so insistently or they simply intimidate you or blackmail you in exchange for sexual favours on the street, at work, in clubs, even relatives in some cases are not excluded, among others.
We can rightly say that in the course of history of humanity, it has been possible to observe and know the various achievements that the human being has had, just as we have been able to know the atrocities and abuses that have occurred for reasons and / or wrong attitudes and among those abuses is sexual harassment.
It should be noted that for centuries this type of abuse has been very common, mainly the abusers are more in people who have some kind of power and because of that position they are at the authoritative level and abuse those under their command or the most fragile (women and children), no matter who it is. This abuse can be suffered by anyone, regardless of age, sex, culture, work, social class or religious and scientific beliefs.
It is important to know that the first time the term Sexual Harassment was used was in 1973 in the report "The Saturn Ring phenomenon," written by Mary P. Rowe, then the President's Special Assistant on women and work at the Technological Institute of Massachusetts on the various forms of harassment related to gender. However, the term was widely unknown until the early 1990s, when Anita Hill testified and denounced sexual harassment of Clarence Thomas, nominee for the United States Supreme Court. After Hill's testimony in 1991, the number of sexual harassment cases reported in the US and Canada increased by 58 percent.
The foregoing makes clear that the complaints of sexual harassment have increased since the victims have dared to speak and mainly because there are already laws that support them in comparison with the past where there was no legislation and in most cases, women had no existing rights to support them.
Despite the legislation, every day we can find more complaints and even then there is still a minimum percentage of the complainants, because many of the victims prefer to keep silent or simply ignore the situation, and why does it do so? For the simple reason that they do not want to get into trouble, for fear of the abuser or what they will say, or because they are accustomed to being frequent and simply prefer to ignore.
Do not forget that most of the cases that are reported are of women, but also men are victims, but they do not denounce because society can come to judge them and be frowned upon.
And we return to the question: Why do they not denounce? Why do they judge men who suffer abuse? Why is it so frequent? Why do they judge women? Why….? It is the most frequent question that will be heard. From small the harassment can occur but it is not identified or it is not given the importance, for example, in the case of children many parents see it as a funny attitude, for example, in the cases of Latin America can be children under 10 years dancing Reguetón in an inappropriate way with a girl or singing songs that have a sexual mention and that he can tell a girl of his age or a woman and can come to see it as grace and not as harassment.
In the case of the men who do not denounce, it is because they can be mocked by family members, friends, even the authorities themselves, because society has created the ideology of machismo, which means that man must be strong, with character and command, and among more women this more man is; If a man reports that he was harassed by a woman, he ends up being considered a lesser man, affecting his self-esteem and morals and prefer to remain silent before reporting. Additionally, machismo encompasses judging women by what they say, see, do and mainly as they dress, to the point of humiliating and denigrating them.
The feeling of insecurity, limitation of freedom, fear and discomfort are usually present in the victims. In the American continent, every 8 of 10 have been victims of some type of sexual harassment. Not only are campaigns enough, you must work hard on the education that is the class to reduce sexual harassment, some of them are:
Finally, worldwide, marches, campaigns and movements of people who fight against sexual harassment in different continents have been carried out. It is time to stop judging and start changing our mentality, these campaigns that have been launched, for example, Times Up, is not the first but it will not be the only campaign against sexual harassment, it is one of the many realized worldwide and that little by little is helping more victims to feel supported and confident in order to raise their voice and denounce.
Leo Natasha Barragan
Leo Club of San Francisco,
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The Sri Lankan elephant population is now largely restricted to the dry zone in the north, east and southeast of Sri Lanka. Elephants are present in Udawalawe National Park, Yala National Park, Lunugamvehera National Park, Wilpattu National Park and Minneriya National Park but also live outside protected areas. It is estimated that Sri Lanka has the highest density of elephants in Asia. Human-elephant conflict is increasing due to conversion of elephant habitat to settlements and permanent cultivation.
The size of wild elephant populations in Sri Lanka was estimated at
Elephants and humans are not getting along and in Sri Lanka, it is more apparent than anywhere else.
The Human Elephant Conflict is a term that defines a growing problem in Asia. Habitat is shrinking daily and humans are encroaching on the territory of elephants. At the same time, many poor farmers haven't changed their daily lives for hundreds of years but their crops and villages are being threatened. As urbanization takes hold, the elephants have nowhere else to go and end up in fields searching for food.
In villages, elephants are considered as pests; as huge and dangerous pests. They raid crops and devastate and entire year's harvest. Like any wild animal that is losing its habitat, elephants are becoming more aggressive and people are losing their lives.
The human elephant conflict dates back centuries, as historical records by Robert Knox reveal. According to data gathered by the Elephant Conservation Unit of the Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWC), around 2,844 elephants were killed by farmers and 1,138 people were killed by elephants between the years from 1991 to 2010, while a total of 3,103 homes in Sri Lanka were destroyed by elephants (from 2004 to 2007).
Because of these statistics Sri Lankans are mobilizing and fighting back. Elephants are being shot, poisoned and electrocuted. As many as 100 – 150 elephants are being killed each year and it doesn't seem as if anyone can come to a solution. Some statistics have stated that over 200 elephants were killed in Sri Lanka in 2009.
Sri Lanka is home to 10%, 20% of the Asian elephant population, more than any other state in this region. A land area of nearly five square kilometers per elephant is needed to ensure that the natural balance that exists between the elephant and its dry zone habitat is not disturbed.
According to this data, the current population of 3,500 elephants requires around 17,500 square kilometers or 27% of total land mass while the protected areas in Sri Lanka cover only 12.5% of the land (or 8,200 square kilometers). This indicates that nature parks and reserves are unable to ensure the sustainable conservation of these beings. Long term solutions are sorely needed and political will is the deciding factor.
These numbers of Elephant deaths are heartbreaking. The elephant is endangered and it is illegal to kill them, but villagers are desperate. Sadly elephants are dying in other ways as well, they are being hit by trains, falling into wells, blown up with explosives and have become casualties of years of conflict.
Recently the famous tusker, “Dala Puttuwa” of Galgamuwa was killed by poachers, renewing the public discussion around the ongoing human -elephant conflict in Sri Lanka. Investigators found that “Dala Puttuwa” was killed to sell its tusks and for coveted ‘elephant pearls’ as they are known.
Reasons for the Conflict
With a 1.1% of a population growth makes so many thing complicated as human are in a big challenge to survive. Demand for the food has been increased due to population growth so the harvesting new lands are a must. Construction of new areas and urbanizing also demands the need of wooden products and it will deprive elephants of their habitat, forcing them to roam about in search of basic needs such as food and water. These elephants then have to face various violent deterrents put in place by the villagers to protect their paddy, ranging from gunshots to poisonous pumpkins.
Matara highway, for instance, has progressed through the MER. Many factories, including solar power generation plants have been constructed within MER, with the result that the human-elephant conflict is worsening day by day, as the land allocated for elephants shrinks.
To fulfill the demands of human being forests are rapidly decreased. We have taken the lands which were belonging to the wild life. Recently human were set up in a part of Wilpaththu national park, government should have a national view on conserving the remaining forest areas and make the biological stabilization in the country.
Steps to Reduce the Human Elephant Conflict
What we need is a sustainable solution for this matter but to achieve a sustainable solution implementing short term and long term plans is what governing bodies must do.
We must preserve the remaining forests in order to maintain the required land area for wild life. Electric fencing is a method of dividing the areas where elephants live. As an alternative to electric fencing, Practical Action came up with an innovative, low cost, sustainable bio-fencing technology to protect elephants and humans.
As a solution to minimize the killing of elephants enforcing the law or strengthening the remaining law should be done and destroying the remaining forest by human should not be taken as a small issue. Law must be implemented to fine the muggers.
Human should have well-planned towns, villages, reservoirs and transport system. At last we should keep in mind that this world belongs to every living creature.
Leo Saliya Pathmabandu
Leo Club of Colombo Host, Sri Lanka
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As a member of NGOs for more than 8 years and working in the finance sector at the same time, in this article I wanted to share my observations on the financing of the NGOs and the economy.
I had to be in charge of financial structures because I had been a presidential candidate and treasurer for CSO several times. The first thing I noticed here is the situation that I want to draw attention to; $1 in an NGO's fortune is very valuable from $100 in my pocket because this money may have been forgiven by a donation, maybe a lot of effort spent on it. More importantly, every dollar of money in this coin will be used for a social purpose.
For this reason, the NGO finance structure that we are talking about has a much more sensitive and important structure and needs to be managed in a very good and completely transparent manner. We can start by examining three different funding methods of NGOs to examine this sensitivity. These; donations, dues and activity revenues.
Subsidies the NGO is one of the most important income sources of profit. It is a constant power and can be predicted and calculated more clearly. Thanks to this structure, it is very important to meet the fixed costs. As an example of fixed costs; if there is an office of an NGO, if there is a rented, invoiced, salaried employee of this office,
Another source of finance is the activity-activity revenues that we Leo use the most. Meals, kermes, tournaments, and any other kind of income that may come to mind are available. These revenues can be used for project-based activities or for funding large long-term social projects. Funding is indeed very important for large-scale projects. It provides a very great service with little small contributions. Lions and Leo draw attention as an NGO that has created this funding structure in a very accurate way.
Donations and sponsorships can be the greatest source of funding for NGOs, but they are the most difficult and sensitive part. For a donation or sponsorship, you must first have a well-prepared progeny or campaign with every detail. This donation or sponsorship from one or more persons or a company is conveyed unexpectedly without any material provision. For this reason, they want to make sure that they are transmitted rightly and correctly. It is necessary to transparently demonstrate at every stage that these donations are used in the most functional and beneficial way. At this stage in the beginning, we will talk about the value of $1 in our pocket, $1 in our donation, and the liability can even exceed $100.
In most of the NGOs, it is observed that the required fundamentals are shown in this finance structure. In some of the forms we mentioned, it is seen that the financial resources provided to the voluntary people are used very inefficiently. In order to prevent this situation, a good finance team needs to create the supervision system with great care. I think that it is necessary to raise awareness of the financial structure of each NGO member in order to prevent the great efforts being made due to finance from falling in efficiency.
Leo Ahmet Yukselbaba,
District 118-R President,
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